How To Do Vertical Analysis Of A Balance Sheet

vertical analysis

Vertical analysis is most often used when looking at income statements, balance sheets, or cash flow statements to understand how each line item affects the overall statements. Vertical analysis involves taking the information on the financial statements and comparing all the numbers to a single number on the statement.

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Although both horizontal and vertical analysis is used in the analysis of financial statements, they have several differences. Both, however, are important when it comes to business decisions based on the performance. This is because the process establishes the relationship between the items in the profit and loss account and the balance sheet, hence identifying financial strengths as well as weaknesses. Various methods used in the analysis of financial statements include ratio, horizontal and vertical analysis.

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The balance sheet uses this presentation on individual items like cash or a group of items like current assets. Cash is listed as an individual entry in the assets section with the total balance being listed on the left and its percentage of total assets being listed on the right. The income statement also uses this presentation with revenue entries referencing total revenues and expense entries referencing total expenses. Usually, it is the total asset, but one also can use total liabilities for calculating the percentage of all liability line items. Such an analysis helps in evaluating the changes in the working capital and fixed assets over time. Investigating these changes could help an analyst know if the company is shifting to a different business model. Vertical Analysis is one of the financial analysis methods with the other two being Horizontal Analysis and Ratio Analysis.

  • The Structured Query Language comprises several different data types that allow it to store different types of information…
  • Without analysis, a business owner may make mistakes understanding the firm’s financial condition.
  • If the interest expenses of a certain company were $200 USD and its total sales amounted to $4,000 USD, then the interest would be represented as 5, because it totals 5 percent of total sales.
  • Your company’s balance sheet must adhere to its governing accounting equation of assets equal liabilities plus owner’s equity.
  • All balance sheet amounts are divided by total assets so that the balance sheet figures will become percentages of total assets.
  • The common-sized accounts of vertical analysis make it possible to compare and contrast numbers of far different magnitudes in a meaningful way.

The amounts from the most recent years will be divided by the base year amounts. For instance, if a most recent year amount was three times as large as the base year, the most recent year will be presented as 300. If the previous year’s amount was twice the amount of the base year, it will be presented as 200. Seeing the horizontal analysis of every item allows you to more easily see the trends. It will be easy to detect that over the years the cost of goods sold has been increasing at a faster pace than the company’s net sales. From the balance sheet’s horizontal analysis you may see that inventory and accounts payable have been growing as a percentage of total assets.

How To Evaluate A Company’s Balance Sheet

There are various formats for creating a Horizontal Analysis but the most popular is to display the variance between Income Statements in dollar amounts and percentage. The difference in percentage is computed by taking the dollar difference in an Income Statement item and dividing it by the base year. A basic vertical analysis needs one individual statement for one reporting period. Comparative statements may be prepared to increase the usefulness of the analysis. With a Horizontal Analysis, also, known as a “trend analysis,” you can spot trends in your financial data over time. Horizontal Analysis – analyzes the trend of the company’s financials over a period of time. Besides analyzing the past performance, analysis helps determine the strategy of a company moving forward.

Example of the vertical analysis of the financial statement, which shows the total in amount and percentage. After squaring the differences and adding them up, then dividing by the total number of items, we find that the variance is $5,633,400. Taking the square root of that, we get the standard deviation, which is $750,600. This method is particularly useful for both internal analysis to identify areas of growth and external analysis by investors or lenders who want to see demonstrable growth before committing their resources to your business.

  • This is because one can see the relative proportions of the account balances.
  • It is done so that accountants can ascertain the relative proportions of the balances of each account.
  • Compare your company results to the baseline and note any significant differences.
  • Further analysis via horizontal analysis will likely be required to unlock those insights, and make use of them in a strategic way.
  • Vertical analysis is used to analyze the different accounts of the financial statements and describe the changes in the relative size of each item.
  • Assets include the short-term assets of cash and accounts receivable and the long-term assets of property and equipment.

With the previous year’s statement and analyze the profit or loss of the period. Appointment Scheduling 10to8 10to8 is a cloud-based appointment scheduling software that simplifies and automates the process of scheduling, managing, and following up with appointments.


The Structured Query Language comprises several different data types that allow it to store different types of information… Excel Shortcuts PC Mac List of Excel Shortcuts Excel shortcuts – It may seem slower at first if you’re used to the mouse, but it’s worth the investment to take the time and… Vertical analysis is used in order to gain a picture of whether performance metrics are improving or deteriorating.

vertical analysis

Vertical analysis can also be used for comparing the financial statement of a company with its previous year’s financial statements. Vertical analysis provides the percentage size of each item of the financial statement, which makes a comparison between different companies very easy. Vertical analysis is also useful in comparing an individual firm’s performance over a number of periods as it helps to identify unusual changes in the behavior of a particular account. For example, if cost of sales is consistently 45%, but jumps to 60% for a particular period, then the reasons need to be identified and corrective measures be taken accordingly. Firms of different sizes can be compared easily as all the items are expressed as a percentage. Comparison of financial performance and position of firms of different sizes is not very useful when absolute figures are considered.

Vertical Common

It is one of the popular methods of financial analysis as it is simple to implement and easy to understand. Also, the method makes it easier to compare the performance of one company against another, and also across industries. Enter the statement line item and the total base figure into the calculator to calculate the vertical analysis. You have presented the horizontal analysis of current assets section and statement of retained earnings on horizontal analysis page. But on this page you have not given the vertical analysis of current assets section and the statement of retained earnings. Common-size statements include only the percentages that appear in either a horizontal or vertical analysis.

vertical analysis

I do not know why “statement of cash flows” is included in that, because it does not belong there. Vertical analysis is done on either the balance sheet or the income statement. The percentages are always percentages of one line item on a statement divided by another line item on the same statement. The statement of cash flows is a separate statement from the income statement, where revenue is reported.

The company’s management can use these percentages to set goals and threshold limits. For example, the management may consider shutting down a particular unit if the profit per unit falls below a particular threshold percentage. Horizontal analysis involves taking the financial statements for a number of years, lining them up in columns, and comparing the changes from year to year. In the above table, it can be seen that the gross profit margin, operating income margin, and net income margin of Apple Inc. have remained quite stable during the last three years.

Cash Flow Statements: Reviewing Cash Flow From Operations

Financial statements that include vertical analysis clearly show line item percentages in a separate column. These types of financial statements, including detailed vertical analysis, are also known as common-size financial statements and are used by many companies to provide greater detail on a company’s financial position. For best results, perform vertical analysis on a handful of company balance sheets and calculate the average to establish a baseline balance for each account.

Regression analysis is a set of statistical methods used to estimate relationships between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. DisclaimerAll content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional.

ExpensesOther expenses comprise all the non-operating costs incurred for the supporting business operations. Such payments like rent, insurance and taxes have no direct connection with the mainstream business activities. By calculating the difference and converting to percentages, we can quickly create a thumbnail snapshot of revenue growth or contraction. Top-down budgeting refers to a budgeting method where senior management prepares a high-level budget for the company. The company’s senior management prepares the budget based on its objectives and then passes it on to department managers for implementation. A company’s management can use the percentages to set goals and threshold limits.

vertical analysis

By seeing the trend, which is a remarkable growth of over 100% from one year to the next, we can also see that the trend itself is not that remarkable of only 10% change from 2013 at 110% to 120% in 2014. Which could show, that perhaps growth is starting to stagnate or level-off.

Garcia received her Master of Science in accountancy from San Diego State University. Harold Averkamp has worked as a university accounting instructor, accountant, and consultant for more than 25 years. Our priority at The Blueprint is helping businesses find the best solutions to improve their bottom lines and make owners smarter, happier, and richer.

The proportion of fixed assets and current assets to the total assets is 25.06%. Vertical analysis is the comparison of various line items within a single period. It compares each line item to the total and calculates what the percentage the line item is of the total. It can be done with the company’s Financial Statements or with the use of the Common Size Statements. For example, using financial ratios can be helpful in determining costs or identifying changes in processes to increase savings.